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Zum Angebot. During the long reign of Leopold I — and following the successful defence of Vienna against the Turks in under the command of the King of Poland, John III Sobieski ,  a series of campaigns resulted in bringing most of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Karlowitz in Emperor Charles VI relinquished many of the gains the empire made in the previous years, largely due to his apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg.
Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir.
With the rise of Prussia , the Austrian—Prussian dualism began in Germany. Austria participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland in and Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France , at the beginning highly unsuccessfully, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in Two years earlier,  the Empire of Austria was founded.
From to , the Austrians had suffered , casualties. It emerged from the Congress of Vienna in as one of the continent's four dominant powers and a recognised great power.
The same year, the German Confederation Deutscher Bund was founded under the presidency of Austria. Because of unsolved social, political, and national conflicts, the German lands were shaken by the revolutions aiming to create a unified Germany.
The various different possibilities for a united Germany were: a Greater Germany , or a Greater Austria or just the German Confederation without Austria at all.
As Austria was not willing to relinquish its German-speaking territories to what would become the German Empire of , the crown of the newly formed empire was offered to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
In , Austria and Prussia fought together against Denmark and secured the independence from Denmark of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.
As they could not agree on how the two duchies should be administered, though, they fought the Austro-Prussian War in Defeated by Prussia in the Battle of Königgrätz ,  Austria had to leave the German Confederation and no longer took part in German politics.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of , the Ausgleich , provided for a dual sovereignty, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary , under Franz Joseph I.
As a result, ruling Austria—Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements, requiring considerable reliance on an expanded secret police.
Yet, the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: for example, the Reichsgesetzblatt , publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania , was issued in eight languages; and all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices.
Many Austrians of all different social circles such as Georg Ritter von Schönerer promoted strong pan-Germanism in hope of reinforcing an ethnic German identity and the annexation of Austria to Germany.
Although Bismarck's policies excluded Austria and the German Austrians from Germany, many Austrian pan-Germans idolized him and wore blue cornflowers, known to be the favourite flower of German Emperor William I , in their buttonholes, along with cockades in the German national colours black, red, and yellow , although they were both temporarily banned in Austrian schools, as a way to show discontent towards the multi-ethnic empire.
Austria's exclusion from Germany caused many Austrians a problem with their national identity and prompted the Social Democratic Leader Otto Bauer to state that it was "the conflict between our Austrian and German character".
Many Austrians, especially those involved with the pan-German movements, desired a reinforcement of an ethnic German identity and hoped that the empire would collapse, which would allow an annexation of Austria with Germany.
A lot of Austrian pan-German nationalists protested passionately against minister-president Kasimir Count Badeni 's language decree of , which made German and Czech co-official languages in Bohemia and required new government officials to be fluent in both languages.
This meant in practice that the civil service would almost exclusively hire Czechs, because most middle-class Czechs spoke German but not the other way around.
The support of ultramontane Catholic politicians and clergy for this reform triggered the launch of the " Away from Rome " German : Los-von-Rom movement, which was initiated by supporters of Schönerer and called on "German" Christians to leave the Roman Catholic Church.
As the Second Constitutional Era began in the Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary took the opportunity to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina in Over one million Austro-Hungarian soldiers died in World War I.
On 21 October , the elected German members of the Reichsrat parliament of Imperial Austria met in Vienna as the Provisional National Assembly for German Austria Provisorische Nationalversammlung für Deutschösterreich.
On 30 October the assembly founded the Republic of German Austria by appointing a government, called Staatsrat. This new government was invited by the Emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy, but refrained from this business.
This left the responsibility for the end of the war, on 3 November , solely to the emperor and his government. On 11 November, the emperor, advised by ministers of the old and the new governments, declared he would not take part in state business any more; on 12 November, German Austria, by law, declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic.
The constitution, renaming the Staatsrat as Bundesregierung federal government and Nationalversammlung as Nationalrat national council was passed on 10 November The Treaty of Saint-Germain of for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon of confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great extent had been established in November , creating new states and altering others.
The German-speaking parts of Austria which had been part of Austria-Hungary were reduced to a rump state named The Republic of German-Austria German: Republik Deutschösterreich.
On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" Article 1 and "German-Austria is an integral part of the German reich" Article 2.
Over 3 million German-speaking Austrians found themselves living outside the new Austrian Republic as minorities in the newly formed or enlarged states of Czechoslovakia , Yugoslavia , Hungary , and Italy.
The status of German Bohemia Sudetenland later played a role in sparking the Second World War. The status of South Tyrol was a lingering problem between Austria and Italy until it was officially settled by the s with a great degree of autonomy being granted to it by the Italian national government.
Between and , Austria was known as the State of German Austria Staat Deutschösterreich. Not only did the Entente powers forbid German Austria to unite with Germany, but they also rejected the name German Austria in the peace treaty to be signed; it was, therefore, changed to Republic of Austria in late The border between Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes later Yugoslavia was settled with the Carinthian Plebiscite in October and allocated the major part of the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Crownland of Carinthia to Austria.
This set the border on the Karawanken mountain range, with many Slovenes remaining in Austria. After the war, inflation began to devalue the Krone, which was still Austria's currency.
In autumn , Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations. The loan meant that Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations.
In , the Schilling was introduced, replacing the Krone at a rate of 10, Later, it was nicknamed the "Alpine dollar" due to its stability.
From to , the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing [ clarification needed ] after Black Tuesday.
The First Austrian Republic lasted until , when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss , using what he called "self-switch-off of Parliament" , established an autocratic regime tending towards Italian fascism.
In February , several members of the Schutzbund were executed,  the Social Democratic party was outlawed, and many of its members were imprisoned or emigrated.
His successor Kurt Schuschnigg acknowledged Austria as a "German state" and that Austrians were "better Germans" but wished for Austria to remain independent.
On 12 March , Austrian Nazis took over government, while German troops occupied the country, which prevented Schuschnigg's referendum from taking place.
Two days later, Austrian-born Hitler announced what he called the "reunification" of his home country with the "rest of the German Reich " on Vienna's Heldenplatz.
He established a plebiscite confirming the union with Germany in April Parliamentary elections were held in Germany including recently annexed Austria on 10 April They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi rule, and took the form of a single-question referendum asking whether voters approved of a single Nazi-party list for the member Reichstag, as well as the recent annexation of Austria the Anschluss.
Jews and Gypsies were not allowed to vote. In the case of Austria, Adolf Hitler's native soil, On 12 March , Austria was annexed to the Third Reich and ceased to exist as an independent country.
The Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish Austrians started immediately in mid-March, with a so-called "wild" i.
The Nazis renamed Austria in as " Ostmark "  until , when it was again renamed and called "Alpine and Danubian Gaue" Alpen-und Donau-Reichsgaue.
The invading Allied powers, in particular the Americans, planned for the supposed "Alpine Fortress Operation" of a national redoubt, that was largely to have taken place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the Eastern Alps.
However, it never materialised because of the rapid collapse of the Reich. Karl Renner and Adolf Schärf Socialist Party of Austria [Social Democrats and Revolutionary Socialists] , Leopold Kunschak Austria's People's Party [former Christian Social People's Party] , and Johann Koplenig Communist Party of Austria declared Austria's secession from the Third Reich by the Declaration of Independence on 27 April and set up a provisional government in Vienna under state Chancellor Renner the same day, with the approval of the victorious Red Army and backed by Joseph Stalin.
At the end of April, most of western and southern Austria were still under Nazi rule. On 1 May , the federal constitution of , which had been terminated by dictator Dollfuss on 1 May , was declared valid again.
Total military deaths from to are estimated at , Thousands of Austrians had taken part in serious Nazi crimes hundreds of thousands died in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp alone , a fact officially recognised by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky in Much like Germany , Austria was divided into American, British, French, and Soviet zones and governed by the Allied Commission for Austria.
Thus, the creation of a separate Western Austrian government and the division of the country was avoided. Austria, in general, was treated as though it had been originally invaded by Germany and liberated by the Allies.
On 15 May , after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the Cold War , Austria regained full independence by concluding the Austrian State Treaty with the Four Occupying Powers.
On 26 October , after all occupation troops had left, Austria declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament.
The political system of the Second Republic is based on the constitution of and , which was reintroduced in The system came to be characterised by Proporz , meaning that most posts of political importance were split evenly between members of the Social Democratic Party of Austria SPÖ and the Austrian People's Party ÖVP.
Since , governing via a single-party government has occurred twice: — ÖVP and — SPÖ. During all other legislative periods, either a grand coalition of SPÖ and ÖVP or a "small coalition" one of these two and a smaller party ruled the country.
Kurt Waldheim , a Wehrmacht officer in the Second World War accused of war crimes , was elected President of Austria from to Following a referendum in , at which consent reached a majority of two-thirds, the country became a member of the European Union on 1 January The major parties SPÖ and ÖVP have contrary opinions about the future status of Austria's military nonalignment: While the SPÖ in public supports a neutral role, the ÖVP argues for stronger integration into the EU's security policy; even a future NATO membership is not ruled out by some ÖVP politicians ex.
Dr Werner Fasslabend ÖVP in In reality, Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy , participates in peacekeeping and peace creating tasks, and has become a member of NATO 's "Partnership for Peace"; the constitution has been amended accordingly.
Since Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area in , none of Austria's neighbouring countries performs border controls towards it anymore.
The Parliament of Austria is located in Vienna , the country's capital and most populous city. Austria became a federal , representative democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of The political system of the Second Republic with its nine states is based on the constitution of , amended in , which was reenacted on 1 May The head of state is the Federal President Bundespräsident , who is directly elected by popular majority vote, with a run-off between the top-scoring candidates if necessary.
The head of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor Bundeskanzler , who is selected by the President and tasked with forming a government based on the partisan composition of the lower house of parliament.
The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the Nationalrat.
Voting for the Federal President and for the Parliament used to be compulsory in Austria, but this was abolished in steps from to Austria's parliament consists of two chambers.
The composition of the Nationalrat seats is determined every five years or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself by a general election in which every citizen over the age of 16 has the right to vote.
The voting age was lowered from 18 in The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the legislative process in Austria. However, the upper house of parliament, the Bundesrat , has a limited right of veto the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time; this is referred to as a Beharrungsbeschluss , lit.
While the bicameral Parliament and the Government constitute the legislative and executive branches, respectively, the courts are the third branch of Austrian state powers.
The Constitutional Court Verfassungsgerichtshof exerts considerable influence on the political system because of its power to invalidate legislation and ordinances that are not in compliance with the constitution.
Since , the European Court of Justice may overrule Austrian decisions in all matters defined in laws of the European Union.
Austria also implements the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights , since the European Convention on Human Rights is part of the Austrian constitution.
In January the People's Party and SPÖ formed a grand coalition with the social democrat Alfred Gusenbauer as Chancellor.
This coalition broke up in June They formed a coalition with Werner Faymann from the Social Democrats as Chancellor.
After the Grand Coalition broke in Spring a snap election was proclaimed for October The Austrian People's Party ÖVP with its new young leader Sebastian Kurz emerged as the largest party in the National Council, winning The Social Democratic Party SPÖ finished second with 52 seats and NEOS finished fourth with 10 seats 5.
The ÖVP decided to form a coalition with the FPÖ. The new government between the centre-right wing and the right-wing populist party under the new chancellor Sebastian Kurz was sworn in on 18 December , but the coalition government later collapsed and new elections were called for 29 September The elections lead to another landslide victory The Austrian State Treaty ended the occupation of Austria following World War II and recognised Austria as an independent and sovereign state.
On 26 October , the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional article in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality.
Austria began to reassess its definition of neutrality following the fall of the Soviet Union , granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in , and since , it has developed participation in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy.
Also in , it joined NATO's Partnership for Peace although it was careful to do so only after Russia joined and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia.
Meanwhile, the only part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of still fully valid is to not allow foreign military bases in Austria.
Austria attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organisations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE.
As an OSCE-participating State, Austria's international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U. Helsinki Commission.
The manpower of the Austrian Armed Forces German: Bundesheer mainly relies on conscription. Both males and females at the age of sixteen are eligible for voluntary service.
Since , women volunteers have been allowed to become professional soldiers. The main sectors of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces Streitkräfteführungskommando, SKFüKdo which consist of Land Forces Landstreitkräfte , Air Forces Luftstreitkräfte , International Missions Internationale Einsätze and Special Forces Spezialeinsatzkräfte , next to Joint Mission Support Command Kommando Einsatzunterstützung; KdoEU and Joint Command Support Centre Führungsunterstützungszentrum; FüUZ.
Austria is a landlocked country and has no navy. In , Austria's defence expenditures corresponded to approximately 0.
The Army currently has about 26,  soldiers, of whom about 12, are conscripts. As head of state, Austrian President is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the Bundesheer.
Since the end of the Cold War , and more importantly the removal of the former heavily guarded " Iron Curtain " separating Austria and its Eastern Bloc neighbours Hungary and former Czechoslovakia , the Austrian military has been assisting Austrian border guards in trying to prevent border crossings by illegal immigrants.
This assistance came to an end when Hungary and Slovakia joined the EU Schengen Area in , for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border controls between treaty states.
Some politicians have called for a prolongation of this mission, but the legality of this is heavily disputed. In accordance with the Austrian constitution, armed forces may only be deployed in a limited number of cases, mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of national emergency, such as in the wake of natural disasters.
Within its self-declared status of permanent neutrality , Austria has a long and proud tradition of engaging in UN-led peacekeeping and other humanitarian missions.
The Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit AFDRU , in particular, an all-volunteer unit with close ties to civilian specialists e. Currently, larger contingents of Austrian forces are deployed in Bosnia and Kosovo.
Austria is a federal republic consisting of nine states German: Bundesländer. Districts are subdivided into municipalities Gemeinden.
Statutory Cities have the competencies otherwise granted to both districts and municipalities. Vienna is unique in that it is both a city and a state.
Austria's constituent states are not mere administrative divisions but have some legislative authority distinct from the federal government, e.
In recent years, it has been questioned whether a small country should maintain ten subnational legislatures. The Ministry in charge of the Austrian corrections system is the Ministry of Justice.
Austria is a largely mountainous country because of its location in the Alps. The Alps of western Austria give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country.
The second greater mountain area much lower than the Alps is situated in the north. Phytogeographically , Austria belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.
According to the WWF , the territory of Austria can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests , Pannonian mixed forests , Alps conifer and mixed forests , and Western European broadleaf forests.
View of Krems at the end of Wachau valley. The Danube at Linz with cruise ships. With nearly three-quarters of the country dominated by the Alps, the alpine climate is predominant.
In the east—in the Pannonian Plain and along the Danube valley —the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas.
It is important to note though that Austria may experience very cold, severe winters, but most of the time they are only around as cold as those in somewhat comparable climate zones, for example Southern Scandinavia or Eastern Europe.
The subarctic and tundra climates seen around the Alps are much warmer in winter than what is normal elsewhere due in part to the Oceanic influence on this part of Europe.
Austria consistently ranks high in terms of GDP per capita ,  due to its highly industrialized economy, and well-developed social market economy.
Until the s, many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised; in recent years, however, privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies.
Labour movements are particularly influential, exercising large influence on labour politics and decisions related to the expansion of the economy.
Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the economy of Austria. Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy.
Since Austria became a member state of the European Union , it has gained closer ties to other EU economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany.
In addition, membership of the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union.
Growth in GDP reached 3. Austria indicated on 16 November that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout of Greece, citing the material worsening of the Greek debt situation and the apparent inability of Greece to collect the level of tax receipts it had previously promised.
The Financial crisis of — dented the economy of Austria in other ways as well. Since the fall of communism, Austrian companies have been quite active players and consolidators in Eastern Europe.
Between and , 4, mergers and acquisitions with a total known value of bil. EUR with the involvement of Austrian firms have been announced.
EUR in In , the country began construction of a nuclear-powered electricity-generation station at Zwentendorf on the River Danube , following a unanimous vote in parliament.
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